The early attempts at implementing Chlorine as a water purifier were made in 1893 in Hamburg, Germany. In 1894, a paper published reports to add chlorine in water to make it germ-free. However to make water useful and tasteless the chlorine must be removed.
Two third of the entire earth is covered with water,and 60 percent of the human body is composed of water. There is no question that water is the no one necessity of the humans as well as the other creatures. Humans cannot imagine a life without water. It is a multi-purpose entity which is used by every human in their life.
There is such an abundance of water out there yet cleaning the water is one of the major tasks human race must achieve. Most of the water is salty and cannot be used,and freshwater often contains germs such as bacteria, fungi,and other pathogens. These pathogens must be removed from the water before the use as these germs can cause water-borne diseases such as Cholera and Typhoid
The dirty water when consumed in its raw form can cause problems such as kidney stones and stomach pain. Therefore the water must be purified to avoid these problems. For the purification, water undergoes different procedures and chlorination is one of them. But there always some cons with the pros.
Chlorine is a chemical agent used for many purposes. It is the second lightest of all the halogens. It is an extremely vigorous element and a powerful oxidizing agent.
In 1918, the US Department of treasury ordered that all the drinking water must be cleaned by the use of chlorine. Chlorine is widely used for water purification, as a cleaning agent and bleach in the present age. Chlorine as a water disinfectant is more than three times as effective against Escherichiacoli bacterium than bromine. Chlorine is mostly used to kill bacteria in the drinking water and cleaning the pools.
But the chlorination is a dangerous process. Chlorine sometimes reacts with the naturally occurring organic compounds found in the water supply and forms disinfection by-products. These by-products can form in different forms,and their damage varies. These are highly hazardous. One of these by-products is bromoform which slows down the brain activity. The symptoms that occur can be drowsiness or sedation. The hazardous effects of the by-products range according to the dosages. The chronic ingestions of these compounds can cause kidney and liver stones, heart attacks and in rare cases even death.
The process of chlorination requires scrutinizing. World Health Organization states that the risks to the health from the by-products is extremely small compared to the inadequate disinfection. Often small firms mishandle the process and risks increase violently.
Chlorine causes damage to the human body by attacking soft parts such as eyes. The long-term contact with the chlorine can cause cancer. Therefore the chlorine must be removed from the water before using.
It is advised that the safe amount of chlorine for the consumption is 4 mg/l. Unfortunately most of the times the companies use more than that and then it becomes a health risk. Therefore the chlorine must be removed before sending the water to different household systems. It is easy to remove chlorine if you use the correct filters and techniques. These techniques not only rid the water of chlorine but the distinctive odor leaves as well. You have to invest a little in the filtering system and gain a little knowledge.
Removal of chlorination, water filtering and purification; you can read at housewatermatters.com. Given below are some of the tips.
There are different processes for removing the chlorine from the water.
Chlorine removal through carbon filters.
Carbon is one of the most useful, if not the most, elements. It is used in a variety of ways. In the form of facemasks in cosmetics and charcoal drawing. Carbon is used in the filters to remove the chlorine from the water through the process of adsorption.
Normally GAC ( Granular Activated Carbon ) filters are used.
What happens in this processis, that the chlorine ions get adsorbed to the surface of the activated carbon. The small granule of the carbon possesses a large surface which allows a lot of the chlorine ions to be adsorbed. 500-3000 square meter surface is provided by a single gram of charcoal. The activated carbon is derived from different sources such as Coconut shells, coal or wood. The greatest advantage of the use of carbon filters is that the process does not add any harmful substance while removing the chlorine. These systems are usually used in the industrial plants, pharmaceutical companies and in point of use unit ( POC ) in the residential use.
Probably the most famous of all the purification processes. Reverse Osmosis, also known as RO, is the name for the filtration process for removing chlorine as well as chloramine. These filters are effective in removing the harmful materials such as lead and arsenic. The RO units are extremely tight membranes which allow the water to pass while other substances such as chlorine are stuck. RO and Carbon filter systems are the best and mostly used purification systems. However, the cost of RO is quite high.
Chemical neutralization uses the chemical compounds in removing the toxicity and chlorine from the water, compounds like Sulphur dioxide and Sodium compounds. Adding Vitamin C is an effective method as well. If you add one teaspoon of vitamin c in 3.8 liters of water, then it acts as a chlorination agent. Vitamin c is cheap as it does not require any filtration system.
Other chemicals such as Sodium thiosulphate and Sodium bisulfate are used for the chlorination as well.
Treatment by Rays
High-intensity UV rays are used in breaking the chlorine molecules into degradable by-products and changing the DNA of the pathogens which leads to their death.
The wavelength of these rays must be between 180 and 490 nm. These are easy to install and used widely.